Antioxidants help neutralize damage caused by highly reactive molecules known as free radicals. Without antioxidants to absorb them, free radicals remain free to damage cells and tissues.
Oxygen is necessary for life in all higher animals; however, oxidation is associated with damage, also called oxidative stress.
Everyone experiences oxidative stress. Eating, exercising, even fighting off a cold causes it. Oxidative stress is also produced by environmental factors including pollution, smoke, and sunlight.
An atom or group of atoms with at least one unpaired electron. Unpaired electrons are highly reactive and can damage living cells.
A compound capable of donating an electron and thus neutralizing the electrical charge that may otherwise lead to cascading cellular damage.
In a healthy person, robust levels of antioxidant enzymes in our cells and tissues, combined with antioxidants from our diet, help neutralize the oxidative stress created by our normal bodily functions.
Antioxidants present in blood, cells, and tissue fluids throughout the body play an important role in neutralizing oxidative damage caused by free radicals. This helps protect the normal functioning of the cells and tissues.
Antioxidant uptake and protection in blood and tissue are important factors in preventive health. Therefore, it is important, when discussing antioxidants in food, to not only know the levels of antioxidants in a given food, but also know if those antioxidants are able to provide protection to living cells 1, 2. AppleBoost™ provides antioxidant protection to living cells.*
AppleBoost is a nutritional product based on dried apple peel powder. It contains a high level of polyphenols, which are a type of antioxidant.* Polyphenol-rich nutritional products can help increase one’s antioxidant status.* AppleBoost also contains many smaller antioxidant compounds that are known to be easily absorbed 3, 4.*
Because many of the nutrients in apples are antioxidants, it’s important to process apples quickly. Everyone has seen what happens when you cut an apple. Within minutes, the apple starts to turn brown. Its exposure to oxygen “oxidizes” the apple. When the apple turns brown, it means that the antioxidants have also been oxidized. Oxidized antioxidants no longer have the ability to bestow many of their health-promoting effects, like neutralizing free radicals. AppleBoost peels are dried within a critical time frame after being removed from the apple in order to preserve their full antioxidant value.*
AppleBoost has been tested for its antioxidant content, using industry standard antioxidant tests such as ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) and CAP-e (Cellular Antioxidant Protection in erythrocytes).*
The ORAC test measures the ability of an ingredient to neutralize free radicals at the chemical level. The ORAC test is useful in telling us how much chemical antioxidant protection an ingredient provides, however it does not necessarily tell us how effective the ingredient might be in a live person 2, 5.
The CAP-e test measures the ability of an ingredient to neutralize free radicals in a cellular environment, and provides us with better information about how much antioxidant protection an ingredient may provide 1, 2, 5.
AppleBoost contains much higher levels of active antioxidants per gram than fresh apples, as shown using the ORAC test.* AppleBoost was also tested to determine whether the antioxidants in the product are able to protect living cells from oxidative damage.* AppleBoost protected human cells from oxidative stress in the CAP-e test.* The CAP-e test is specifically designed to test foods and natural products for antioxidants that are bioavailable at the cellular level.
AppleBoost was also clinically tested in a study where people consumed AppleBoost for 12 weeks. After 2 weeks, study participants showed increased antioxidant protection capacity in their blood circulation.* The level of antioxidant protection continued to increase over the 12-week study period and was measured using the CAP-e cellular antioxidant protection assay.* The increase may be a result of easily absorbed antioxidants in AppleBoost, as well as antioxidant compounds released because of the normal digestive process.
Summary: AppleBoost has a high antioxidant content and protects cells against oxidative stress.* In one human clinical trial, the cellular antioxidant protection in the blood circulation increased during the time AppleBoost was consumed.* AppleBoost can play an important role in your overall healthy lifestyle.
2 – Honzel D, Carter SG, Redman KA, Schauss AG, Endres JR, Jensen GS: Comparison of chemical and cell-based antioxidant methods for evaluation of foods and natural products: generating multifaceted data by parallel testing using erythrocytes and polymorphonuclear cells. J Agric Food Chem 2008; 56:8319–8325.
3 – Boyer J, Liu RH. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits. Nutrition Journal. May 2004; 3:5.
4 – Jensen GS, Ager DM, Redman KA, Mitzner MA, Benson KF, Schauss AG. Pain reduction and improvement in range of motion after daily consumption of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp-fortified polyphenolic-rich fruit and berry juice blend. J Med Food. 2011; 14:702-11.
5 – Jensen GS, Redman KA, Benson KF, Carter SG, Mitzner MA, Reeves S, Robinson L. Antioxidant bioavailability and rapid immune-modulating effects after consumption of a single acute dose of a high-metabolite yeast immunogen: results of a placebo-controlled double-blinded crossover pilot study. J Med Food. 2011; 14:1002-10.
Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for maintaining inflammation within the normal range, which helps with pain management.
AppleBoost has undergone clinical testing in people who suffer from recurring pain. It was a criterion for people to participate in the study that they had a recurring pain problem for at least half a year before the study started. Most of the people in the study had experienced recurring pain for many years before starting to consume AppleBoost. Study participants reported a reduction in perceived pain within two weeks, with continued signs of improvement for the entire 12-week period.* Pain reduction was felt both when a participant was resting and physically active.
Study participants consuming AppleBoost for a minimum of two weeks experienced a perceived reduction in recurring pain.*
Pain is part of the body’s defense system. Sudden pain produces a reflex so we quickly pull away from the source of pain, which helps us avoid future harmful situations. However, recurring pain can lead to many problems. When we have pain in an area of the body, we try to reduce the pain by taking pressure off the area. We also restrict ourselves to try to avoid making the pain worse. This can lead to bad posture and reduced physical activity, which can lead to additional health problems in turn. Recurring pain and inflammation out of the normal range can also lead to a reduced pain threshold. This in turn means that we may do even less before we feel pain, and that we tend to restrict our activities even more.
AppleBoost organic apple peels contains a high level of polyphenols, which are antioxidants. Polyphenol-rich foods and beverages can help with pain management.* Studies on the effectiveness of polyphenols on pain management have been conducted using tart cherry juice1, polyphenol-rich berry juices2, grape seed extract3, and other herbal compounds4,5. The pain reduction mechanism involves the inhibition of an enzyme, Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). This same mechanism underlies some pain reducing drugs, such as Tylenol and Advil. In addition to inhibiting COX-2, polyphenols also help maintain inflammation within the normal range.* This inflammation management function may support improved pain management.*
In addition to these mechanisms, some polyphenols also directly impact the central nervous system. These polyphenols bind to receptors in the brain and help reduce the perception of pain6.*
Polyphenols inhibit COX-2 enzymes and support a healthy inflammation response, which helps with pain management.*
1. Tall JM, Seeram NP, Zhao C, Nair MG, Meyer RA, Raja SN. Tart cherry anthocyanins suppress inflammation-induced pain behavior in rat. Behav Brain Res. 2004 153:181-8.
2. Jensen GS, Ager DM, Redman KA, Mitzner MA, Benson KF, Schauss AG. Pain reduction and improvement in range of motion after daily consumption of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp-fortified polyphenolic-rich fruit and berry juice blend. J Med Food. 2011 14:702-11.
3. Cady RJ, Hirst JJ, Durham PL. Dietary grape seed polyphenols repress neuron and glia activation in trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Mol Pain. 2010 6:91.
4. Oluwatoyin AE, Adewale AA, Isaac AT. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of a Nigerian polyherbal tonic tea (PHT) extract in rodents. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2008 5:247-56.
5. Nwidu LL, Nwafor PA, da Silva VC, Rodrigues CM, dos Santos LC, Vilegas W, Nunes-de-Souza RL. Anti-nociceptive effects of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (Polygalaceae) leaf fractions in animal models. Inflammopharmacology. 2011 19:215-25.
6. Korte G, Dreiseitel A, Schreier P, Oehme A, Locher S, Hajak G, Sand PG. An examination of anthocyanins’ and anthocyanidins’ affinity for cannabinoid receptors. J Med Food. 2009 12:1407-10.
AppleBoost™ was clinically tested in people who suffer from joint stiffness and limitations in the range of motion. It was a criterion for people to participate in the study that they had experienced these joint symptoms for at least half a year before the study started. Most of the participants had experienced recurring pain for many years before starting to consume AppleBoost. Study participants reported a reduction in perceived pain within two weeks, with continued signs of improvement for the entire length of the study.* Pain reduction was felt both when a participant was resting and physically active.* After consuming AppleBoost for two weeks, participants were tested and showed an improved range of motion. Range of motion measurements continued to improve over the 12-week study period.*
Clinical studies have examined specific mechanisms. In vitro studies have shown that AppleBoost:
AppleBoost contains compounds that support a healthy inflammation response, support healthy joints, and promote joint comfort and mobility.*
The function of our joints, including the spine, neck, hips, knees and shoulders, allow us to be physically active. As we age, and as a result of sedentary lifestyle and lack of attention to a diet that will support us through ageing, stiffness in our joints and muscles makes us less able to be as physically active as we like. This leads to a reduced quality of life.
Declining joint health is a large and growing cost to individuals and to society, in terms of hospitalization, joint replacement surgeries, and rehabilitation. Knee and hip replacements, as well as spinal fusions, are the three most frequently performed musculoskeletal procedures, and all three procedures are performed at a growing rate1. Deteriorating joint health can involve bone and tissue destruction, can involve inflammatory processes that further accelerate the damage, as well as cause pain.
Nutritional management of joint health has enormous cost-saving implications. In many cases, nutritional support can help improve the joint function, help manage inflammation2-3, help slow down degradation of the joint, and in many cases assist the body to complete its natural repair processes.*
Many joint problems are not located in the joint. The whole body may be experiencing chronic low-grade inflammation. This disturbs many of the body’s normal repair functions. Inflammatory conditions can lead to reduced muscular function, so that the ability to use the joint is further reduced. Inflammation may also accelerate the degenerative joint problem itself. Changes in nutrition can support a healthy inflammatory response, which has many positive benefits on joint comfort and mobility.*
AppleBoost is a nutritional product based on organic apple peels. It contains a high level of polyphenols, which are natural compounds that have have been shown to help maintain inflammation within the normal range.* Polyphenol-rich foods, beverages, and botanical extracts can support healthy joint function2-6. Studies on polyphenols have been conducted on polyphenol-rich berry juice2, polyphenol-rich botanical blend3, green tea4-5, and other botanical compounds6. The joint-health supporting properties of polyphenols involve multiple mechanisms, including inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inhibition of pro-inflammatory processes, and improved antioxidant status.*
Published research data suggest that some polyphenols may also help support pain management (see section on AppleBoost™ and pain management).
By supporting a healthy inflammation response, AppleBoost supports helthy joints and promotes joint comfort and mobility.*
1. Merrill C, Elixhauser A. Hospital Stays Involving Musculoskeletal Procedures, 1997–2005: Statistical Brief #34. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Briefs [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US); 2006-2007.
2. Jensen GS, Ager DM, Redman KA, Mitzner MA, Benson KF, Schauss AG. Pain reduction and improvement in range of motion after daily consumption of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp-fortified polyphenolic-rich fruit and berry juice blend. J Med Food. 2011, 14:702-11.
3. Benson KF, Ager DM, Landes B, Aruoma OI, Jensen GS. Improvement of joint range of motion (ROM) and reduction of chronic pain after consumption of an ergothioneine-containing nutritional supplement. Prev Med. 2012, 54, Suppl:S83-9.
4. Ahmed S. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin 3-gallate in arthritis: progress and promise. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010, 12: 208.
5. Haqqi TM, Anthony DD, Gupta S, Ahmad N, M-S Lee, Kumar GK, Mukhtar H. Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by a polyphenolic fraction from green tea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 April 13; 96(8): 4524–4529.
6. Oben J, Enonchong E, Kothari S, Chambliss W, Garrison R, Dolnick D. Phellodendron and Citrus extracts benefit joint health in osteoarthritis patients: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr J. 2009; 8: 38.