Gitte S. Jensen, Victoria L. Attridge, Kathleen F. Benson, Joni L. Beaman, Steve G. Carter, and David Ager
NIS Labs, Klamath Falls, Oregon, USA.
ABSTRACT The goal for this study was to evaluate the effects of consumption of dried apple peel powder (DAPP) on jointfunction and range of motion (ROM). Additional in vitro and clinical testing was performed to suggest specific mechanisms of action. An open-label clinical pilot study involved 12 healthy people with moderate loss of joint ROM and associated chronic pain. The subjects consumed 4.25 g DAPP daily for 12 weeks, with evaluations at baseline, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. ROM was evaluated at each visit using dual digital inclinometry. Pain scores were collected using Visual Analogue Scales. Blood draws enabled testing of serum antioxidant protective capacity using the cellular antioxidant protection (CAP-e) bioassay. Additional in vitro testing involved testing of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and lipoxygenase inhibition, cellular antioxidant protection by the CAP-e bioassay, and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells by flow cytometry. Twelve weeks of consumption of DAPP was associated with improved ROM. DAPP provided antioxidants that were available to enter into and protect cells from oxidative damage in vitro, and consumption of DAPP for 12 weeks was associated with a statistically significant improvement in serum antioxidant protective status. DAPP inhibited both COX-2 and lipoxygenase enzymes, and pretreatment of inflammatory PMN cells with DAPP before inflammatory stimulus resulted in reduced ROS formation. This suggests multifaceted anti-inflammatory properties of DAPP. Consumption of DAPP was associated with improved joint function and improved serum antioxidant protection status. The observed pain reduction may be associated with the improved antioxidant status and linked to the apple polyphenols’ anti-inflammatory effects.
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Marie Claude Denis1,2 , Alexandra Furtos3 , Ste´phanie Dudonne´ 4 , Alain Montoudis1 , Carole Garofalo1 , Yves Desjardins4 , Edgard Delvin1,3 , Emile Levy1,2,4*
1 Research Centre, Sainte-Justine Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2 Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Universite´ de Montre´al, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 3 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universite´ de Montre´al, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 4 Institute of Nutraceuticals and Functional foods, Universite´ Laval, Quebec, Quebec, Canada
Since gastrointestinal mucosa is constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species from various sources, the presence of antioxidants may contribute to the body’s natural defenses against inflammatory diseases. Hypothesis: To define the polyphenols extracted from dried apple peels (DAPP) and determine their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in the intestine. Caco-2/15 cells were used to study the role of DAPP preventive actions against oxidative stress (OxS) and inflammation induced by iron-ascorbate (Fe/Asc) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively. Results: The combination of HPLC with fluorescence detection, HPLC-ESI-MS TOF and UPLC-ESI-MS/MS QQQ allowed us to characterize the phenolic compounds present in the DAPP (phenolic acids, flavonol glycosides, flavan-3-ols, procyanidins). The addition of Fe/Asc to Caco-2/15 cells induced OxS as demonstrated by the rise in malondialdehyde, depletion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and alterations in the activity of endogenous antioxidants (SOD, GPx, G-Red). However, preincubation with DAPP prevented Fe/Asc-mediated lipid peroxidation and counteracted LPS-mediated inflammation as evidenced by the down-regulation of cytokines (TNF-a and IL-6), and prostaglandin E2. The mechanisms of action triggered by DAPP induced also a down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor-kB, respectively. These actions were accompanied by the induction of Nrf2 (orchestrating cellular antioxidant defenses and maintaining redox homeostasis), and PGC-1a (the ‘‘master controller’’ of mitochondrial biogenesis). Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence of the capacity of DAPP to reduce OxS and inflammation, two pivotal processes involved in inflammatory bowel diseases.
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~ Jeanelle Boyer and Rui H Liu
Author Affiliations: Department of Food Science and Institute of Comparative and Environmental Toxicology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-7201 USA.
Based on these epidemiological studies, it appears that apples may play a large role in reducing the risk of a wide variety of chronic disease and maintaining a healthy lifestyle in general. Of the papers reviewed, apples were most consistently associated with reduced risk of cancer, heart disease, asthma, and type II diabetes when compared to other fruits and vegetables and other sources of flavonoids. Apple consumption was also positively associated with increased lung function and increased weight loss. Partially because of such strong epidemiological evidence supporting the health benefits in apples, there is increasing research using animal and in vitro models that attempts to more clearly explain these health benefits.
~ Kelly Wolfe, Xianzhong Wu, and Rui Hai Liu
Author Affiliations: Institute of Comparative and Environmental Toxicology and Department of Food Science, Stocking Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-7201.
Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been shown to be effective in the prevention of chronic diseases. These benefits are often attributed to the high antioxidant content of some plant foods. Apples are commonly eaten and are large contributors of phenolic compounds in European and North American diets. The peels of apples, in particular, are high in phenolics. During applesauce and canned apple manufacture, the antioxidant-rich peels of apples are discarded. To determine if a useful source of antioxidants is being wasted, the phytochemical content, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative activity of the peels of four varieties of apples (Rome Beauty, Idared, Cortland, and Golden Delicious) commonly used in applesauce production in New York state were investigated.
The values of the peels were compared to those of the flesh and flesh + peel components of the apples. Within each variety, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were highest in the peels, followed by the flesh + peel and the flesh. Idared and Rome Beauty apple peels had the highest total phenolic contents (588.9 ± 83.2 and 500.2 ± 13.7 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of peels, respectively). Rome Beauty and Idared peels were also highest in flavonoids (306.1 ± 6.7 and 303.2 ± 41.5 mg of catechin equivalents/100 g of peels, respectively). Of the four varieties, Idared apple peels had the most anthocyanins, with 26.8 ± 6.5 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g of peels. The peels all had significantly higher total antioxidant activities than the flesh + peel and flesh of the apple varieties examined. Idared peels had the greatest antioxidant activity (312.2 ± 9.8 μmol of vitamin C equivalents/g of peels).
Apple peels were also shown to more effectively inhibit the growth of HepG2 human liver cancer cells than the other apple components. Rome Beauty apple peels showed the most bioactivity, inhibiting cell proliferation by 50% at the low concentration of 12.4 ± 0.4 mg of peels/mL. The high content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative activity of apple peels indicate that they may impart health benefits when consumed and should be regarded as a valuable source of antioxidants.